Friday, June 22, 2012

Tomb Carvings Shed Light On A Lesser-Known Chinese Dynasty

Actor Figures, Detail from the South Wall of Brick-Carved Tomb,
Jin dynasty (1115–1234), brick with pigments,
Unearthed at a Chemical Factory, Jishan county, Shanxi province in 2009,
From left to right Heights: 18.7, 18.9, 18.9, 19.7 in. (47.6, 48, 48, 50 cm),
Shanxi Museum, Taiyuan, China
Photo: Courtesy of Shanxi Museum

Something special awaits those who visit the China Institute’s exhibition, Theater, Life, and the Afterlife: Tomb Décor of the Jin Dynasty from Shanxi. Over 80 tomb brick carvings from the Shanxi Museum focuses attention on the Jin dynasty (1115-1234) and Chinese theatrical arts. Filled with the wonder of discovery, the show reveals the vibrancy of the Jin period and the multifarious thespian activities that took place under their support.

First some background: the Jin were Jurchens, tribesmen from Manchuria in what is today northeast China. In the twelfth century, they defeated the Mongolic Liao and Chinese North Song empires and forced the latter south. They took over northern China, established the Jin dynasty, intermarried, and adapted Chinese traditions. Peace was made with the Southern Song, who were in control of South China and the country became politically stable and prosperous. The arts flourished, especially theatrical entertainments.

In the southern region of Shanxi Provence, some 900 miles from Beijing, more than one hundred Jin tombs have been excavated since the mid-twentieth century. Painted and carved bricks decorated the tombs. The technique was a form of traditional Shanxi folk ornamentation. Shaped in low and high relief or modeled three-dimensionally, theater and musical performances were the predominant imagery.

Theatrical entertainment was obviously important to the Jin both in the cities and the countryside. In Shanxi, close to three thousand ancient theaters and stages remain. No other area in China has as many. These include the twelfth-century Erlang Temple stage which is the oldest surviving Chinese stage that, up to now, has been uncovered. It typifies the Jin architectural style and a small scale model of it is on view in the first gallery.

In the rural areas, performances would take place in the open. At first, city, court and temple productions were enacted on a simple raised platform. Later, an open-sided roofed structure was added. During the Jin period, a back wall was built creating an area open on three sides as in the Erlang stage.

Although temple activities were widespread, no written accounts of their productions have so far been discovered. Our understanding of what took place is based on tomb carvings and burial items along with the extant records of Jin and Southern Song court entertainments.

Figure of Musician Playing a Waist Drum,
Jin dynasty (1115–1234), carved brick,
15.7 x 7.7 x 2.6 in. (40 x 19.5 x 6.5 cm)
Unearthed in 1965 at Jingcungou, Xiangfen county, Shanxi province
Shanxi Museum, Taiyuan, China
Photo: Courtesy of Shanxi Museum

The numerous tomb depictions of musicians and dancers that remain attest to their popularity. A fine example is a group of carvings in the first gallery that portray a procession of eleven musicians and two dancers. Each brick has one figure, some with traces of paint. There are flutists, clapper players, drummers, and oboists. Of special note is the waist drum with its hourglass shape and cloth covering. The instrument was tied to the player’s waist allowing the performer to move about freely. It may have originated about 3,000 years when soldiers stationed at borders needed a way to communicate, sound alarms and accompany the advancement of cavalry. It evolved into an instrument of choice for dancers. In Shanxi, a waist drum dance that can be traced back some 2,000 years is still practiced.

A Parcel-Gilt Silver ‘Musical Troupe’ Ewer and Cover,
Liao – Northern Song Dynasty (A.D. 10th -11th Century),
Height 10 in. (25.4 cm)
Photo: Courtesy of J.J. Lally & Co., New York

A short diversion: music makers are a favorite Chinese motif and appear frequently in different contexts and at different times. A case in point is a Liao – Northern Song Dynasty hexagonal vessel on display at the J.J. Lally & Co., Silver and Gold in Ancient China, March 16 – April 14, 2012. Five musicians and a dancer in high relief decorate the object - one figure centered on each side. A waist drummer swaying rhythmically to his beat is easy to recognize as well as a flutist focused on playing.

The liveliness of music makers is rivaled by that of the dances. Performed in celebration of good fortune or abundant harvest, dances are varied and animated. Look for the carvings of a lion dance, a shield dance and, a dance with musicians accompanied by a melon carrier. In one, each performer appears to be on horseback but they are dancing about with a simulation of the animal - a cleverly devised bamboo and paper construction tied to their waists.

Children Riding on Deer,
Jin dynasty (1115–1234), carved brick,
7.5 x 15.4 x 1.9 in. (19 x 39 x 4.7 cm)
Unearthed in 1965 from Tomb 65H4M102, Houma city, Shanxi province
Shanxi Museum, Taiyuan, China
Photo: Courtesy of Shanxi Museum

In another scene, a playful boy and girl ride galloping deer. Ribbons draped over their chest flare outward as the speed ahead. Their gender is indicated by hairstyle and dress. The herbs they hold are symbolic of immortality.

Scenes of the ordinary and domestic objects tell much about Jin life. Rice pounding, a woman cooking with a five-tiered steamer, a clothes rack and household furniture are just some of the incidents portrayed. One carving of a horse tethered to a post is particularly skillful. The horse turns his head backward tugging on his reins as if to escape the constraint.

A partial replica of a tomb’s north wall incorporates sixteen original bricks and a figure of a woman peering out of a slightly opened door. The woman at the doorway is thought to represent the transition from this world to the next. Hint: color differentiates the authentic and reproduced parts.

Filial piety tales were moralistic legends compiled by Confucian scholars. They were easily adapted into plays and commonly rendered in tombs. The stories exemplified respect, obedience and care for parents and elderly family members. Two stories are illustrated here. One illustrates the tale of Wang Xiang. Wang’s stepmother had become ill during the winter. She wanted fresh fish. Although she treated Wang poorly, he wanted to satisfy her request. Wang went to a frozen river, took off his clothes and lied down on the ice. Once melted by his bodily warmth, he was able to catch two carps. Wang cooked them for his stepmother and she got well. In this depiction, Wang is fully clothed praying beside the frozen lake.

Zaju — Head of a Figure in the Zhuanggu Role,
Jin dynasty (1115–1234), clay with pigments,
4.7 x 3.3 x 2.8 in. (12 x 8.5 x 7 cm)
Unearthed in 1978 from Tomb no. 1 at Macun, Jishan county, Shanxi province
Shanxi Museum, Taiyuan, China
Photo: Courtesy of Shanxi Museum

A much favored type of Jin theater was a sort of commedia dell’arte with of four or five set roles. Carved in high and low relief, their tomb representations were pervasive. The exhibition has several has a variety of these depictions but of particular beauty are two painted heads modeled in the round. One represents the court official role with closed eyes as if he is in deep thought; the other, with an upturned nose and humorous air, portrays a comic character such as a clown or jester.

Chinese tombs historically contained two and three-dimensional objects as stand-ins for items needed in the hereafter. The afterlife was thought to be similar to or a continuation of the life of the living. Thus, the theater representations were simply the entertainment to be enjoyed in the next world. Nevertheless, they may have another meaning. In an exhibition catalogue essay, the Chinese scholar Wilt L. Idema suggests that these depictions may act as a reminder to the dead as well as the living that “ is only a play.” Research is ongoing.

South Wall of Brick-Carved Tomb In Situ,
Jin Dynasty (1115–1234), brick with pigments,
Unearthed at a Chemical Factory, Jishan county, Shanxi province in 2009,
From left to right Heights: 18.7, 18.9, 18.9, 19.7 in. (47.6, 48, 48, 50 cm),
Photo: Courtesy of Shanxi Museum

The show’s highlight, in the second gallery, is the reconstruction of a vaulted, single-chamber brick tomb using 43 of the surviving carvings. The tomb was accidentally unearthed in 2009 during the excavation for the Jishan Chemical Factory’s dormitory in Jishan, Shanxi. It represent a small version of an inner courtyard of a well-to-do wood constructed residence. Floral and abstract designs mix with lattice-like panels and guardian and animal figures. In the center of its north wall, two standing attendants flank a panel door. The south wall appears to be a gate-tower stage on which stand four actors carved in mid-relief. The tomb was made for a couple who were buried with their heads directly under this stage. They were placed as if to have front row seats at the performances.

Zhang Guolao of the Eight Immortals,
Jin dynasty (1115–1234), carved brick,
21.1 x 7.1 at top; 16.3 at bottom x 2.8 in.
(53.5 x 18 at top; 41.5 at bottom x 7 cm),
Unearthed in 1965 from Tomb 65H4M102, Houma city, Shanxi province
Shanxi Museum, Taiyuan, China
Photo: Courtesy of Shanxi Museum

In Chinese legend, the Eight Immortals were a group of Taoist saint-like beings with supernatural powers. Their enchanting legends were easily transformed into plays and, tomb depictions were commonplace. Apparently during Jin period, regulars in the group had not been fixed for tomb sets may have one Immortal replaced by another.

Their attributes make identification easy. Take a look at the Immortal Zhang Guolao from one series unearthed in Houma city. Zang holds a large fan like object, similar to a clapper. He could travel each day for very long distances on his donkey. When not in use, the animal was folded like a sheet of paper. To regain its form, only a sprinkle of water was needed.

Ding Lan Carving Wood Figures and Serving His Parents,
Jin dynasty (1115–1234), carved brick with pigments,
7.1 x 9.4 x 1.9 in. (18 x 24 x 4.5 cm),
Unearthed in 1981 from the Jin tomb at Nanfanzhuang,
Xinjiang county, Shanxi province
Shanxi Museum, Taiyuan, China
Photo: Courtesy of Shanxi Museum

Twenty-four carvings from the south wall on another tomb relate the tales of filial piety. Read the explanatory labels for the stories are charming. There is Wang Xiang who we met earlier but he is depicted unclothed on the frozen river. Another brick illustrates the story of Ding Lan. Ding made wooden figures deceased parents which he worshipped. His wife did not respect her in-laws and one day when Ding was out, she pricked the fingers of the parent images. They bleed. Ding came home and found the figures in tears. After learning what his wife did, he divorced her. There is also Wang Wuzu’s wife who cut off her own flesh to cure her mother-in-law, Yang Xiang who killed a tiger with her bare hands to save her father and Dong Yong who sold himself into slavery to bury his dead father.

Not to be missed are three masterly carved reliefs that work together to form one vivid combat composition. Each brick shows a mounted soldier set before an ornamental archway. One fleeing soldier turns around in his saddle as if to judge his distance from the approaching attacker. His foe comes toward him from the adjacent brick. His spear like weapon ready for action.

Visitors may want to pause to see a short film produced by the Shanxi Museum. Although less than ten minutes long, it manages to introduce viewers to the landscape and ancient sites of Shanxi in addition to providing excerpts from live musical and theatrical entertainments.

In 2006, the Asia Society’s exhibition, Gilded Splendors: Treasures of China’s Liao Empire (907-1125), provoked an interest in the Liao period. On display were recently excavated objects that clearly demonstrated a sophisticated culture of considerable elegance. It dispelled any notion that the Liao were inferior to the Tang or Song.

The China Institute’s show may have already engendered a similar effect. On a personal note: At this year’s Asia Week New York exhibits, March 16 - 24, this viewer seems to have seen more Jin objects than in previous years.

As for the Jin, they were toppled by the northern Mongolian Yuan and Chinese Southern Song Dynasties. The two victors later fought over the defeated territories. The Yuan were triumphant and ushered in Muslim rule. The Jin, nevertheless, did not entirely disappear. The Qing, the last imperial dynasty, were their descendants.

Go to the exhibit but if you can't, explore the excellent virtual tour on the China Institute's Web site.   

Suggestion: Plan to visit the Sterling and Francine Clark Art Institute’s Unearthed: Recent Archaeological Discoveries from Northern China, June 16 - October 21, 2102. This exclusive exhibition presents newly excavated tomb objects from Shanxi and Gansu never before seen outside of China.

Blog post originally published March 27, 2012.  This is revised post.

Theater, Life, and the Afterlife:
Tomb Décor of the Jin Dynasty from Shanxi
February 9, 2012, through June 17, 2012
125 East 65th Street, Manhattan, New York
Monday, Wednesday, Friday, 10:00 a.m. - 5:00 p.m.
Tuesday and Thursday 10:00 a.m. - 8:00 p.m.
Saturday and Sunday 10:00 a.m. - 5:00 p.m.
Closed major holidays

Friday, June 8, 2012

Vuillard At His Finest: A Reappraisal

Edouard Vuillard (1868 – 1940), Misia Sert and her Niece Mimi Godebska
(The Black Cups)
c. 1923-5, distemper on canvas,
55 1/8 × 68 7/8 in. (140.0 × 175.0 cm),
Private Collection
Photo: Courtesy of Jill Newhouse Gallery

The late paintings of Edouard Vuillard (1868 – 1940) are the focus of a show at the Jill Newhouse Gallery, Edouard Vuillard Paintings and Works on Paper, and an exhibition at the Jewish Museum, Edouard Vuillard: A Painter and His Muses, 1890-1940. Scholars and critics are reappraising the works which date from the end of the 1890s until the artist’s death in 1940. These are primarily commissioned portraits and murals.  They have been criticized for being ornamental and bland and cited as examples of the painter’s failing powers when he pandered to his rich clients.

Early in his career, Vuillard had been part of the Nabis group of artists. Highly influenced by Japanese prints, their paintings broke down reality into flat patterns of colors. Abstraction dominated. Later, Vuillard’s work changed. His paintings became more naturalistic. What was depicted came to the fore. When successful, the subject and setting interlock making the sitter’s environment an explication of his reality. Vuillard explained, “I don’t paint portraits, I paint people in their surroundings.”

A large number of the late paintings are inaccessible. They belong to the private family collecitons of the original patrons. These owners are often reluctant to lend them for public display. The late works lack exposure has served as a barrier for a thorough understanding. This being the case, the Vuillard exhibits currently on view in New York are a must see. Although the Jewish Museum exhibition is the more comprehensive, the works at Jill Newhouse make the best case for a reevaluation in an installation conducive to contemplative viewing. Thus, I am concentrating my remarks on the gallery show.

Twelve works from private collections are displayed in two beautifully proportioned rooms. Major paintings are balanced with smaller ones. The latter act as visual rest stops from the intense looking required by the former.

Misia Sert and her Niece Mimi Godebska (The Black Cups) takes up almost an entire wall. Vuillard’s first muse Misia, now 51, is seated at a dining room table with her 21-year-old niece standing nearby. At the time Misia was married to her third husband, the Spanish painter Josep Maria Sert (1). She is heavy in middle-age, trying to be up-to-date with her Chanel-like clothes and bobbed hairstyle. Her earlier unconvential life when she had been the focus of the artist’s attention is replaced by upper-class comfort.

Dizzying in its details, the room cannot be taken in quickly. Only slowly do dabbles and blurs of paint become identifiable. Wonders of reflective descriptions fill a higly polished table at the bottom of the picture. Note the glints on the coffee service, the glass goblet with its blue highlights and, in front of the Chinese ceramic figurine, the matchbox that appears to double in the glossy expanse of wood. Look at Misia’s diamond necklace and the brown terrier on her lap then down to their reflections on the varnished table top. Take in the candelabra on a side board, the small blackamoor next to it, the Chinese style chairs against the walls, the sculpture under the mantle shelf and the painting above, perhaps by Sert or Bonnard. Let your eye move backward, through the mirror-like glass door to a partial view of the living room and decorations within. Each object must have been carefully choosen for its formal and tonal qualities.

Edouard Vuillard (1868 – 1940), Misia Sert and her Niece (preparatory sketch),
1925, glue-based distemper and pastel on paper, mounted on canvas,
55 3/8 × 70 7/8 in. (140.5 × 180.0 cm),
Private Collection
Photo: Courtesy of Jill Newhouse Gallery

While Vuillard was painting the portait, he was simultaneously making a full-scale sketch of it on paper. When the painting was finished, he stopped work on the sketch. Both are on exhibit together for the first time. The sketch gives viewers some idea of what the painting would have looked like in its early stages and before the artist ’s 1933-34 changes. These modifications were made prior to the work’s public exhibition. It was displayed in the French Pavilion of the 1934 Venice Biennial. Although Sert wanted Vuillard to paint Misia, he never bought the painting. Perhaps he was not satisfied with it or by 1925 had eyes for someone else. He left Misia for a younger woman a few years later. The sketch and canvas remained in Vuillard’s studio. They were there when he died. One regret, the two works are hung in separate rooms.

Vuillard’s methodolgy involved much preparation. He made extensive drawings of the sitters and their settings then went to his studio to paint. Over 100 sketches survive for Misia Sert and her Niece Mimi Godebska (The Black Cups). He also took photographs with a handheld Kodak camera. He had purchased one in 1897, 9 years after its invention (2). Vuillard seems to have wanted to record everything then paint undisturbed in his studio at his own pace.

Edouard Vuillard (1868 – 1940), Madame Jean Bloch and Her Children,
second version, 1930, reworked 1933 and 1934,
glue-based distemper on canvas,
72 7/8 x 70 7/8 in. (185 x 180 cm),

Private collection, Paris
Photo: Jewish Museum Web site
(On exhibit at the Jewish Museum)

You can listen to Claude Bloch Dalsace’s recollections of posing for Vuillard on the Jewish Museum’s Web site section, Sitting for Vuillard. Jean-André Bloch, her father, commissioned a family portrait in 1927. He wanted a painting of his wife and children. Claude was the Bloch’s middle daughter. She describes the many pastel sketches Vuillard made during the family’s numerous sittings. These sessions lasted about two and a half hours. The artist had been very strict and was displeased when a sitter moved. Afterward, back at his studio he worked on the painting.

Vuillard portrayed Mrs. Bloch and her children in the family’s opulent grand salon. Mr. Bloch was a prosperous businessman. He had amassed a significant collection of seventeenth-century decorative art including the silk wall covering seen in the painting. Gilded furniture, paneled doors, and a Persian carpet all affirm the family’s fortune and sophisticated taste. The portrait of Pope Clement XI hanging on the salon’s back wall was not an oil painting but a tapestry done after a work by the late Baroque artist Pietro Nelli.

Edouard Vuillard (1868 – 1940), Madame Jean Bloch and Her Children,
 first version, 1927-1929, 
glue-based distemper on canvas,

75 3/4 x 70 5/8 in. (192.5 x 179.5 cm),
Neffe-Degandt Ltd., London
Photo: Jewish Museum Web site
(On exhibit at the Jill Newhouse Gallery)

Vuillard painted several versions of the portrait. The earlier one is on display in the gallery show. Madame Bloch is depicted with her three children Giselle, Thierri and Claude. Although barely perceivable, their nanny is included at the left-hand edge of the canvas. She was considered part of the family. A fourth child, Agnès, was born in 1928. Subsequently, the artist was asked to do a second picture. The final version with Agnès is on exhibit in the Jewish Museum. In that last painting, the three other children appear older and the nanny is more clearly defined. Mr. Bloch kept it in his office until World War II when the work was hidden in the countryside. The Blochs recovered the painting after the war. Its earlier versions remained with the artist until his death.

Vuillard choice of medium may have influenced his working methodology. After the turn of the century, he preferred to paint with glue-based distemper. The artist may have been introduced to distemper when he did set designs for the theater. It was commonly used for decorating sets and scenery. The paint is quick drying, spreads well across large surfaces and produces a non-reflective, matte finish which does not dazzle under strong lighting. It could be built-up without difficulty making textural effects easy. The medium, however, is time-consuming and complicated to work with. Sheets of glue, usually rabbit-glue, have to be soaked for hours in water, heated and mixed with powder pigments. Each color requires its own pot. The mixture must be kept warm to prevent it from becoming too hard or thick. The paint had to dry before applying additional layers. In addition, colors change noticeably when dry so the artist had to have a first-rate color memory. The painting that resulted contrasted dramatically with the high gloss look of academic easel painting.

The colors and surface effects of distemper obviously appealed to the artist. He said he liked the process because it forced him to slow down. He had time to think about the work unhurriedly. The possibilities of this paint seem fully exploited in his The Sewing-Party at Loctudy of 1912. Pats and smudges of paint coordinate to form a tapestry-like arrangement. The surface is thick and palpable. As characteristic of Vuillard’s best efforts, the eye transforms marks into recognizable forms gradually. At the request of its private owner, it could not be reproduced.

Edouard Vuillard (1868 – 1940), Venus of Milo,
1920, glue-based distemper on board,
26 × 28 3/4 in. (66 × 73 cm),
Private Collection

Most enticing is the Venus of Milo with its muted hues of blues, pinks and pale yellows. Vuillard posed a model in an intricate domestic interior. The setting was his studio on the second floor of his home, 26, Rue de Calais, where he lived with his mother. Placed off-center, the model’s stance echoes the Venus de Milo’s head and torso full-size plaster cast which sits precariously on the mantel. The sculpture had been unearthed in 1863 on the island of Samothrace. It became part of the Louvre collection a year later. Vuillard undoubtedly know the piece for his primary art education consisted of studying the museum's holdings.

The room is surveyed as if through a fisheye which takes in all. Patterns, textures and objects are varied. The mirror above the mantelpiece reflects multiple images: the back of the Venus cast, statuettes and other items on the mantel’s shelf; a framed painting on the unseen far wall; and, the head and partial upper torso of the model who appears to be looking down at an easel painting to the left of the fireplace (3). In addition, the decor clearly shows the artist’s interests in medieval tapestries and the British Arts and Crafts movement.

The painting is done on board, a surface Vuillard favored. He liked its absorbancy and the pale brownish yellow and grey base it provided for his subdued color harmonies. Initially financial constraints may have led to its use. He had torn off parts of cardboard boxes to work on. Later this choice was purely artistic.

Model Undressing, Boulevard Malesherbes, c. 1909, has an eroticism not normally associated with the artist. A model is seen from behind and to one side removing her slip. Her far shoulder, arms and legs are already exposed. She stands in a room by the side of a bed. Beyond, through a doorway, is a look into another space, perhaps the bath for there appears to be a sink, mirror and tiling. It is a symphony in pinks, mauves and burgundy. The structure is complex. Rectangles, diagonals and squares lead the eye forward and backward yet stabilize the composition. Again, the owner did not want the work replicated. It is for sale like all the works in the gallery show. Misia Sert and her Niece (preparatory sketch) is being sold with its 113 preparatory sketches.

Take a look at the earlier small oils on display. In the tradition of the old masters, Oil Lamp is an engrossing meditative still life of a lamp, key and matches. Painted in 1888, about 9 x 15 inches, the oil reminds us of Vuillard’s indebtedness to the past. It also points to his future in the evenness of tonality and the tactile quality of its painted surface.

1. Josep Maria Sert was a famous and prosperous mural painter. His Abolition of War and Time, both cleaned a few years ago, can be seen in the lobby of 30 Rockefeller Plaza.

2. The Jewish Museum’s exhibition includes a short presentation of Vuillard’s photographic images. The majority of the photographs he made are in his family’s archive and have not been published. The camera’s impact on Vuillard and, for that matter, other artists of this period, is an area that warrants further investigation. The issue was explored in a recent exhibition, Snapshot: Painters and Photography, Bonnard to Vuillard, February 4 – May 6, 2012, at the Phillips Collection, Washington, D.C. More needs to be done.

3. Although not in the New York exhibitions, for comparison purposes I have reproduced Vuillard’s painting, Madame Vuillard Lighting the Stove. See below. The setting is the same as the Venus of Milo. Note the placement of the mantel items and the easel on the left.

Edouard Vuillard (1868 – 1940), Madame Vuillard Lighting the Stove,
1924, oil on paper mounted on canvas,
25 x 29.25 in. (63.5 x 74.3 cm),
(Not on exhibit in New York)


Edouard Vuillard
Paintings and Works on Paper
April 11, 2012 - May 25, 2012
4 East 81st Street, Manhattan, New York
Monday - Friday, 10:00 a.m. - 5:30 p.m.

Edouard Vuillard: A Painter and His Muses, 1890-1940
May 4, 2012 - September 23, 2012
1109 5th Ave at 92nd St., Manhattan, New York
Monday, Friday - Sunday, 11:00 a.m. - 5:45 p.m.
Thursday, 11:00 a.m. - 8:00 p.m.
Closed Wednesday

Note: Posted originally on May 18, 2012. This is revised post.