Wednesday, May 23, 2018

Two Different Perspectives On Looking At Tapestries and Paintings

Detail of Saint Veronica, Flemish, probably Brussels, ca. 1525, 
wool, silk, gilded silver metal-wrapped threads 
(18-21 warps per inch, 7-8 per cm.), 
0verall: 68 × 51 in. (172.7 × 129.5 cm)
Photo:  Hillary Ganton

For over 300 years, from the late fourteenth century to the early eighteenth century, tapestries were more valued than paintings.* Today this is the opposite.  

The tapestries' early high-ranking among art forms is attributed to their functionality, complexity of production, cost of materials as well as aesthetic appeal. Only the rich could afford them.  The large tapestries insulated cold, drafty rooms in addition to bringing color and visual warmth to dim spaces.  The installation of a set of four seventeenth-century French wall hangings in gallery 531 (Decorative Arts Under Louis XIV), Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York gives visitors a sense of what it would be like to be in a room hung with tapestries.

Installation view of Seasons and Elements (set of four wall hangings), 
possibly after a design by Charles Le Brun (1619 – 1690), 
border probably designed by Jean Lemoyen le Lorrain (1637/38–1709), 
ca. 1683, canvas; silk, wool, and metal-thread embroidery in tent stitch,
Gallery 531, Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York
Photo:  Hillary Ganton

In traditional paintings, the painting's surface is like an open window through which the subject of the work is seen.  With tapestries, however, partly because of their considerable size, the viewer feels himself within the composition.  

The painting, The Rest on the Flight into Egypt, ca. 1540, Metropolitan Museum of Art, illustrates the "view through the window" effect.

Installation view of  The Rest on the Flight into Egypt, ca. 1540,
by a follower of Quentin Metsys (Netherlandish, mid-16th century) 
and Master of the Liège Disciples at Emmaus (Netherlandish, active mid-16th century), 
oil on wood, 37 1/2 x 30 1/4 in. (95.3 x 76.8 cm),
in the exhibition Relative Values:  The Cost of Art in the Northern Renaissance
Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, August 7, 2017 - June 23, 2018
Photo:  Hillary Ganton

Mary and her son Jesus are portrayed in the foreground, close to the viewer.  Behind them in the middle distance to the right, we see Joseph and a donkey.


Detail of The Rest on the Flight into Egypt, ca. 1540, 
by a follower of Quentin Metsys (Netherlandish, mid-16th century) 
and Master of the Liège Disciples at Emmaus (Netherlandish, active mid-16th century), 
oil on wood, 37 1/2 x 30 1/4 in. (95.3 x 76.8 cm)
Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York
Photo:  Hillary Ganton       

The Flight into Egypt refers to the story in the Gospel of Matthew where Mary and Joseph flee to Egypt with Jesus to escape King Herod's massacre of male newborns.  

The Rest on the Flight into Egypt, recounted by early Christian writers, gave artists the opportunity to paint detailed imaginary landscapes. This is clearly demonstrated in the Metropolitan Museum's panel.

Detail of The Rest on the Flight into Egypt, ca. 1540, 
by a follower of Quentin Metsys (Netherlandish, mid-16th century) 
and Master of the Liège Disciples at Emmaus (Netherlandish, active mid-16th century), 
oil on wood, 37 1/2 x 30 1/4 in. (95.3 x 76.8 cm)
Photo:  Hillary Ganton  

Executed in various atmospheric shades of gray suggesting distance, the painting's right background shows a countryside and city.  

Detail of The Rest on the Flight into Egypt, ca. 1540, 
by a follower of Quentin Metsys (Netherlandish, mid-16th century) 
and Master of the Liège Disciples at Emmaus (Netherlandish, active mid-16th century), 
oil on wood, 37 1/2 x 30 1/4 in. (95.3 x 76.8 cm)
Photo:  Hillary Ganton  

A scene of violence takes place in a village setting in the left background. Running figures are being chased and other figures on the ground are being beaten.  Far off, on the road leading in and out of town, soldiers on horseback are ready to continue Herod's carnage.

A spectator standing in front of such a painting, looks through to a world beyond.  A tapestry on the other hand does impart a different experience.

Saint Veronica, Flemish, probably Brussels, ca. 1525, 
wool, silk, gilded silver metal-wrapped threads 
(18-21 warps per inch, 7-8 per cm.), 
0verall: 68 × 51 in. (172.7 × 129.5 cm)
Photo:  Hillary Ganton 

Expansive wall coverings makes it possible to show life-size figures and backgrounds that are so big an observer can imagine walking into the represented space.  The view is unlike a window through which one sees things.  Rather, the depictions convey a palpable sense that the spectator is actually in the physical arena of what is portrayed.  

On a somewhat smaller scale, the Metropolitan Museum's Saint Veronica tapestry, approximately 5 1/2 by 4 feet,  is an example of this illusion.  The saint is seen holding up the cloth she had given Christ to dry his bloodied, sweaty face on the way to his crucifixion.  The image of Christ's face became imprinted on the cloth.   


 Detail of Saint Veronica, Flemish, probably Brussels, ca. 1525, 
wool, silk, gilded silver metal-wrapped threads 
(18-21 warps per inch, 7-8 per cm.), 
0verall: 68 × 51 in. (172.7 × 129.5 cm)
Photo:  Hillary Ganton


Veronica appears to be coming into the observer's realm as the top of her head overlaps the scene's enclosing border.  Behind her, the middle and far background landscapes have biblical allusions.  

The tapestry works on three planes or spatial relationships.  There is the plane of the room's walls which is flush with the tapestry's woven frame.  There is the plane or space that recedes back into the landscape behind and around the main figure and, there is the plane or space of the viewer which the saint and what she is holding appears to have entered.  


View of Shepherds and Shepherdesses Dancing
Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, gallery 549.   
From a set of tapestries of mythological subjects after Giulio Romano, 
designed 1684–86, woven 1689–92, 
cartoon painted by Pierre Monier (French, Blois 1641–1703 Paris), 
woven in the Manufacture Nationale des Gobelins (French, established 1662), 
woven in the workshop directed by Jean Le Febvre the Elder (active 1662–1700), 
silk and metal thread (20-26 warps per inch, 8-12 per cm.)
H. 144 x W. 138 inches (365.8 x 350.5 cm)
Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York
Photo:  Hillary Ganton

Another later tapestry, Shepherds and Shepherdesses Dancingon display at the Metropolitan Museum of Art, gallery 549, depicts three men and three women dancing in a woodland setting.  A pile of musical instruments lies on the ground in front of the dancers next to a stream. 


Detail of Shepherds and Shepherdesses Dancing
Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, gallery 549.   
From a set of tapestries of mythological subjects after Giulio Romano, 
designed 1684–86, woven 1689–92, 
cartoon painted by Pierre Monier (French, Blois 1641–1703 Paris), 
woven in the Manufacture Nationale des Gobelins (French, established 1662), 
woven in the workshop directed by Jean Le Febvre the Elder (active 1662–1700), 
silk and metal thread (20-26 warps per inch, 8-12 per cm.)
H. 144 x W. 138 inches (365.8 x 350.5 cm)
Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York
Photo:  Hillary Ganton

The large scale and three-dimensionality of the frontal plane entices spectators to step in and join the fun.  With imagination, the viewer could feel like he or she is doing just that.  

The immediacy of tapestries was taken up by huge mural painters starting in the Renaissance.  This is also the objective of today's Virtual Reality.  

The above is an attempt to present the case for a distinctive response to two art forms, tapestries and paintings.  In general, tapestries have been neglected and overlooked by contemporary museum visitors. Readers, it is hoped, will no longer let these woven works go unnoticed.   


  
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Tuesday, April 24, 2018

Cow Currency As A System Of Pricing

Albrecht Dürer (1471 - 1528), The Martyrdom of Saint Catherine, ca. 1498,
black ink on carved pearwood,
15 1/2 × 11 1/8 × 1 in. (39.4 × 28.3 × 2.6 cm)*
Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York
Photo:  The Metropolitan Museum of Art Web site
  
During the northern Renaissance a carved wood printing block by the renowned 15th/ 16th-century German artist Albrecht Dürer, and a fake sculptural relief attributed to him were more expensive than one of his original prints.  What caused these differences in price and other questions concerning the complexity of valuation are addressed in the Metropolitan Museum of Art's intriguing exhibition Relative Values:  The Cost of Art in the Northern Renaissance.  

Many of the show's 63 objects, all but one from the museum's collections, have never been out of storage and most will be new to visitors.  Some have not been seen since being acquired in 1917.



Saint Veronica, Flemish, probably Brussels, ca. 1525, 
wool, silk, gilded silver metal-wrapped threads 
(18-21 warps per inch, 7-8 per cm.), 
0verall: 68 × 51 in. (172.7 × 129.5 cm)
Photo:  The Metropolitan Museum of Art Web site
  
The show's curator, Elizabeth Cleland, Associate Curator, Department of European Sculpture and Decorative Arts, a specialist in tapestries, had long sought to inform the public about the prestige and value of tapestries when they were new.  From the late 14th century through the early 18th century, tapestries far surpassed the cost and significance of paintings.  Today this is reversed. 

Since pricing is meaningful only relative to other costs, Ms. Cleland set about researching the comparison prices of objects during the northern Renaissance.  Her archival studies focused on 16th-century contracts, guild prices, household inventories, evaluations of royal collections and other financial records.  It was difficult, however, to translate relative purchasing power.  There were numerous currencies in use and two monetary bases, gold and silver, used throughout the period.  To clarify valuations, Ms. Cleland first converted the average price of the exhibit's objects into their silver equivalent.  But she felt prices in silver weight would not be meaningful and effective to the viewers.  Instead, she came up with a unique idea.  

Follower of Quentin Metsys (Netherlandish, mid-16th century) 
and Master of the Liège Disciples at Emmaus (Netherlandish, active mid-16th century), 
The Rest on the Flight into Egypt, ca. 1540, 
oil on wood, 37 1/2 x 30 1/4 in. (95.3 x 76.8 cm)
Photo:  The Metropolitan Museum of Art Web site

In the northern Renaissance, milking cows were an important resource 
throughout Europe.  Their prices held steady at 175 grams of silver per cow.  Ms. Cleland thought objects could be better expressed in the form of "cow" currency.   As such, in the 16th century a door tapestry of St. Veronica, ca. 1525, would be valued at 52 cows which was more than ten times the contemporaneous price of a painting about the same size.  Thus, The Rest on the Flight into Egypt, ca. 1540, could be had at 5 cows.  Ms. Cleland also calculated what other things one cow could buy: for example, the wages for 59 days of an unskilled laborer in London and Antwerp or, 35 days of a skilled worker in the same market.  

Why were tapestries so highly valued in the 16th century?   The range of values depends on many things, but can be divided into intrinsic and extrinsic features.  The materials used to make the object may be quite costly or rare and the work involved in making the article may take a long time.  Artistic value, geographic distance from the market place or a belief in the object's magic or religious power also influence price. Tapestries were made of wool, silk and often thread wrapped in strips of silver or gold.  The tapestries were usually enormous, covering wall to wall and ceiling to floor and came in sets of five to up to ten different tapestries. They depicted narrative scenes of historical, religious or allegorical nature. 

Making tapestries took months and involved highly trained artisans such as weavers, designers and painters.  Only the wealthiest could afford them which meant generally royalty. They were used to cover drafty and dark palace rooms, offering warmth and color.  Those threaded with metal would glimmer in candlelight. They were not intended for permanent display and could be rolled up easily to store and transport from one palace to another. Compared to tapestries, paintings were uncomplicated and reasonably priced for the mercantile class.



View of glass and stoneware objects arranged in hierarchy of value 
in the exhibition Relative Values:  The Cost of Art in the Northern Renaissance
Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, August 7, 2017 - June 23, 2018
Photo:  The Metropolitan Museum of Art Web site

To illustrate the hierarchy of value visually, Michael Langley, an exhibition designer at the museum, devised a clever  installation.   He positioned objects in groupings indicating the relative cost of the raw material by height.  The higher the placement the pricier the material. He also used color as a value indicator by associating works with particular hues ranked according to the cost of 16th-century dyes. The most expensive item in a  group was set before black which was the costliest dye, the deepest and richest black achieved from imported North American logwood.   Purple came next derived from Mediterranean murex shells, then red from the madder plant followed by yellow weld, which also came from a plant, and beige, referring to cheap, undyed cloth.   Thus, placement and color indicate the object's 16th-century relative worth.


Bird, German, Nuremberg,  ca. 1580 with modern renovations, 
rock crystal, with gilded silver and rubies, height (with base): 12 1/8 in. (30.8 cm)
Photo:  The Metropolitan Museum of Art Web site

The exhibit's biggest-ticket item, valued at 275 cows, is a rock crystal bird with ruby eyes and a collar and legs of gilded silver.  In the 16th century rock crystal was equated pound for pound with gold.  It was prized for its hardness, transparency and radiance.  


Low-end items are included as well.  1/12 cow could purchase the show's cheapest pieces: a salt-glazed stoneware jug, which was damaged in firing but kept and used, or one pilgrim badge made of a tin alloy, two are in the show.  Pilgrim badges were popular.  They were souvenirs indicating that the wearer had made a religious journey. A badge, moreover, acted as an amulet giving the owner protection from disease and other misfortunes.  



Joachim Friess (ca. 1579–1620, master 1610), Diana and the Stag, ca. 1620,
partially gilded silver, enamel, jewels (case); iron, wood (movement),
overall: 14 3/4 × 9 1/2 in. (37.5 × 24.1 cm),
Photo:  The Metropolitan Museum of Art Web site

Technologically advanced devices are among those that cost the most. Examples include a 1579 Austrian celestial globe with clockwork, valued at 10o cows, a 1568 German astronomical table clock with an alarm assessed at 59 cows and an early 17th-century mechanical drinking game wine vessel,  Diana and the Stag, by a famous German goldsmith, evaluated at 79 cows.  The stag's head could be screwed off and the animal's body filled with wine. The piece could be wound up so that it would vibrate about the dining table.**  When it stopped, the guest closest to the stag's head would have to unscrew it and drink the vessel's entire contents. 


Displayed in a nearby vitrine is a 16th/ 17th-century French lead-glazed earthenware puzzle bottle worth only 1/8 cow.  Made for the low-end drinking public, the bottle has three spouts so that the drinker had to decide which one to drink from to avoid getting spattered with wine. Other high- and low-end comparisons are an additional treat for visitors. 



Puzzle bottle, French, 16th-17th century, lead glazed earthenware,
overall: 10 × 9 in. (25.4 × 22.9 cm)
Photo:  The Metropolitan Museum of Art Web site

As for the Dürer items, the woodcut block was a form of commercial investment.  Woodcut prints were mass produced and less expensive than engravings which were made in much smaller numbers.  Carved wood blocks could yield 1000s of impressions, many more than those realized from metal plates which were more pliable and wore out sooner.  Although inexpensive, many woodcut prints could be sold to produce a handsome profit.  Consequently, the wood block was valued at 16 cows and the lowly paper print at 1/2 cow.  


The fake Dürer sculptural plaque, 6 x 2 5/8 inches, was cut from a low-grade stone.  Dürer's works were in great demand especially after his death. Although the date 1509 appears on the plaque, it was actually made 70 years after the artist's death.  The plaque's sculptor sought to pass his work off as a Dürer by the early date and placing the artist's well-known monogram on the composition.  Falsely represented as an original, the sculpture was valued at 9 cows.


The exhibition gives visitors much to think about not least of which is how values change over time.   These objects may have previously been overlooked.  Now is a good time to see them.  


*Albrecht Dürer's The Martyrdom of St. Catherine of Alexandria woodcut print:

Albrecht Dürer (1471 - 1528), The Martyrdom of Saint Catherine of Alexandria
n.d., woodcut,
image: 15 7/16 x 11 5/16 in. (39.2 x 28.7 cm)
sheet: 15 3/4 x 11 5/8 in. (40 x 29.6 cm)
Accession Number:  19.73.154
Photo:  The Metropolitan Museum of Art Web site


**Boston's Museum of Fine Arts has a similar mechanical vessel.  To view it in action, see below:




Relative Values:  The Cost of Art in the Northern Renaissance
August 7, 2017 - June 23, 2018
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Friday and Saturday 10 a.m. – 9 p.m.
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Saturday, March 24, 2018

The Many Manifestations of Female Buddhas

Karsang Lama, 1000 Green Tara, 2013 - 2015
natural mineral color and 24k pure gold on cotton canvas,
39 1/5 x 50 1/5 ins. (100.3 x 127.5 cm)
Photo:  Courtesy of Dharmapala Thangka Centre, Kathmandu, Nepal


Female buddhas and bodhisattvas, feminine deities, yoginis (female yogis), women practitioners and teachers of Buddhism and more fill a hall and gallery walls at the Tibet House US in the exhibition Divine Feminine: New Masterpieces from Nepal.  These divine beings appear in fifty thangka paintings by the master painter Karsang Lama who is designated a national treasure in Nepal and considered Katmandu's top thangka painter.  The paintings' powerful feminine icons are meant to inspire and guide worshippers in the practice of Buddhism.  

Thangka paintings are scroll paintings in natural colors on prepared cotton cloth.  They depict Buddhist figures and mandalas, complex geometric configurations representing the universe.  Every detail of the painting has meaning.  

The art form evolved in India some fifteen hundred years ago, spread to Nepal and then to Tibet. The artist first forms a visualization of what is to be represented.  If the work is complex, the artist draws what he wants to paint on transparent paper, then transfers his outline to canvas. For simple thangkas, the picture is created directly on the cloth.  The entire design is done freehand except for rectilinear and circular forms when a ruler or compass is employed. After the outline is completed, paint is applied. At this stage, there is no erasing or redoing. Colors are prepared by mixing powders derived from minerals and plants with water and animal glue made from the leather of yak that allows for the paint to adhere to the fabric surface.

Master painter Karsang Lama completing a lion figure left unfinished
 by another artist on the base of a 21st century work commissioned by  Tibet House US
Photo:  Margaret AuYeung, March 22, 2018, Tibet House US

The blending of glue and pigment in traditional style thangka painting is done on the back of the artist's hand which acts as a palette.  Very thin paint brushes are used and paint is best described as dabbed on the surface in layers.  The work must follow a prescribed set of rules as to content, symbols, color, proportion and measurements. The art form requires tremendous mental discipline.  Training involves the study of meditative religious practice besides art.  To become a master painter could take some thirty years or more.

The world renowned thangka painter Karsang Lama is the seventh generation painter from his family. His ancestors were holy monks who migrated from Tibet to northern Nepal and founded a monastery and a foundation where Buddhism and painting were taught.  Karsang Lama studied for 10 years, from age 5 to 15, at a monastery that his great-great-grandfather established.  

A word about Buddhism:  Buddhism is a religion many westerners find baffling.  It teaches that the way for beings to end the suffering in life is enlightenment achieved through wisdom, virtue and concentration. Like western religions, Buddhism has many schools or branches each with their own important figures, visual symbols and mythology.  Tibetan Buddhism, for example, has over 1,000 deities.  Visual representations are aids in understanding for the initiated and uninitiated. As such, the thangkas on view at Tibet House US offer much for those who know and those who seek to know.

Karsang Lama, 1000 White Tara, 2012 - 2014
mineral color and 24k pure gold on cotton canvas,
38 2/7 x 52 1/5 ins. (97.3 x 132.6 cm)
Photo:  Courtesy of Dharmapala Thangka Centre, Kathmandu, Nepal


Eleven of the thangkas on view depict the goddess Tara, a female buddha and bodhisattva.  She is regarded as the mother of all buddhas and savior of sentient beings from worldly miseries.  If confused about the term buddha, it does not necessarily refer to the historic Buddha, Siddhartha Gautama, but simply means enlightened one.  There were many buddhas before Siddhartha and there are and will be many buddhas thereafter. Bodhisattva is an enlightened being who is able to enter paradise, nirvana, but chose to stay behind to help others reach nirvana and escape from endless suffering.  

There are various legends associated with Tara's origins and various forms she takes like the Green Tara and White Tara.  In Buddhist iconography, deities have specific colors to indicate their nature and functions.  As the Green Tara, she is the goddess of action and activity. She is slender and graceful and  thought of as the original Tara.  Her pose with right leg extended indicates she can spring into action to help those in trouble.

The White Tara is associated with purity, truth and knowledge. She has seven eyes, one in each palm and on each foot, one in the center of her forehead and her two normal human eyes.  With these she is able to see all those in need. 

Tara is portrayed as a bodhisattva adorned with necklaces, bracelets, earrings and a crown.  She has not given everything away since she remains connected to this world.  Buddhas, in contrast, are represented in a monk's plain robe, usually covering only one shoulder. For buddhas, all earthly goods have been relinquished.  

Hand gestures, called mudras, and numbers, like everything in a thangka painting, have  significance.  For example, the right hand of the White and Green Tara makes the sign  for "charity."  1000 as in 1000 Green Tara and 1000 White Tara, indicates infinity and the path to nirvana.  If the digits are added one by one, 1+0+0+0, they equal one which refers to truth and the one way leading to enlightenment.  The goddess has been through the path and is guiding worshippers towards the same.  The number 108, as in two works in the exhibit 108 Green Tara and 108 Buddha, when added digit by digit equals 9.  This is the number of energy and the 9 planets of  the universe that give off great power. The combination of 1 and 9 makes the human body energetic and full of knowledge.  


Karsang Lama, Vajrayogini, 2011
mineral color and 24k pure gold on cotton canvas,
29 1/6  x 38 6/7 ins. (74.1 x 98.7 cm)
Photo:  Courtesy of Dharmapala Thangka Centre, Kathmandu, Nepal

Vajrayogini is a tantric female deity who can be human or non-human and can fly through the sky. Tantra means the channeling of energies within the body to achieve enlightenment.  It is believed that yogis developed Tantra.  

Vajrayogini has supernatural wisdom and power that can help eliminate obstacles and obstructions. She also has the ability to bestow omniscience, complete understanding and enlightenment.  She is portrayed with many ornaments covering her nude body including a necklace and crown of skulls.  In her left hand she holds a blood filled skullcap. She stands in the center of the fire of wisdom trampling on her own emanations.  Her depiction is both erotic and fierce.  Many of her attributes refer to tantric philosophy and rituals.  Skulls, for instance, are associated with charnel grounds, above ground crematory and cemetery areas, considered the home ground for tantric practitioners.  There are all sorts of things going on in this thangka. Wall labels assist the visitors' understanding but leave much unexplained.  This may have the effect of wanting to know more.  Perhaps this is one of the artist's intentions:    wanting to know more is wanting to be enlightened.

Karsang Lama, Green Tara Mandala (1), 2014
natural mineral color and 24k pure gold on cotton canvas,
17 1/2 x 17 1/2 ins. (44.5 x 44.5 cm)
Photo:  Courtesy of Dharmapala Thangka Centre, Kathmandu, Nepal

As an instrument of mediation, the mandala is the focus of the practitioner's mind, mentally entering the image through the three or four outer circles proceeding towards the center.  While the geometrical mandala represents the cosmic universe, the land of the buddha, the circles surrounding it symbolize such things as fire which the consciousness must pass through to burn ignorance and darkness.

Karsang Lama, Machig Lapdron, 1998 - 2000
mineral color and 24k pure gold on cotton canvas,
44 1/2 x 65 3/5 ins. (113 x 166.6 cm)
Photo:  Courtesy of Dharmapala Thangka Centre, Kathmandu, Nepal

The masterpiece of the exhibition is Karsang Lama's painting of Machig Lapdron. She was an 11th-century Tibetan tantric Buddhist teacher and yogini and is the most famous woman of wisdom in Tibet.   She is depicted with a crown of five skulls and covered with gold jewelry. Her dancing posture with right leg raised and left bent as if in motion attest to her   role as the representative of enlightened female energy.  The main figures to her left and right are her two sons and, above her, bodhisattva Avaloketeshwara, the earthly manifestation of Buddha Amitabha who is the buddha of longevity.  All around the main figures are teachers, gurus, siddhas (holy men), deities, bodhisattvas and buddhas.  

Karsang Lama, Medical Thangka Plate No. 53, 2008
mineral color and 24k pure gold on cotton canvas,
22 2/5  x 26 1/6 ins. (56.9 x 66.5 cm)
Photo:  Courtesy of Dharmapala Thangka Centre, Kathmandu, Nepal

The exhibit also includes images of male buddhas and bodhisattvas, a variety of different types of mandalas, scenes of the life of the buddha, illustrious religious leaders and yogis. There are even illustrations of medical plates from a medieval medical chart.  

For followers of Buddhism, these thangkas will have deep spiritual meanings. Their imagery and beauty, however, will appeal to everyone.

Divine Feminine:
New Masterpieces from Nepal
March 15, 2018 - May 11, 2018
22 West 15th Street, Manhattan
Gallery Hours:  
Monday - Friday 11 a.m. - 6 p.m.